Top tips: QUT Harvard

Here are our top tips for referencing using QUT Harvard:

1.    Referencing two sources (e.g. websites, books) which are written by the same author and published in the same year.  

Example:  You have two book chapters written by John Hartley and published in 2007.  Both books have been edited by other people.  Construct your references according to the style for your particular source type, and then list them alphabetically by title.  Next, assign the first listed reference with an ‘a’ after the year, then the second with a ‘b’ and so on.  What you should end up with is something like:

Hartley, John. 2007a. “The best propaganda: Humphrey Jennings, the silent village (1943).” In Beautiful things in popular culture, edited by Alan McKee, 144-163. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Hartley, John. 2007b. “Reality and the plebiscite.” In Politicotainment: Television’s take on the real, edited by Kristina Riegert, 21-58. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

 2.    Referencing one author’s work that been referred to in the work of another.

Example: You’ve found an excellent journal article and in it, there’s a really useful quote from someone else.  What’s more, you can reference the second author’s work, even if you can’t access this author’s work!  Simply reference the original author’s work in text and reference the article author in the reference list, like this…


… (Zukofsky quoted in Costello 1981, 45)

Reference list:

Costello, Bonnie. 1981. Marianne Moore: Imaginary possessions. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

3.    Referencing a Facebook post or Tweet from Twitter.

Example: You’ve found a fan page for an orang-utan named Nonja that has relevant information for your argument.  You’ve thought long and hard about whether or not this type of source material is scholarly enough to include in your essay, or you’ve talked to your tutor and they have advised that Facebook and Twitter references are okay.

If you are citing a fan page from Facebook, reference it as you would a webpage:

Nonja. n.d. “Facebook.” [Fan page]. Accessed October 12, 2011.  http://www.facebook.com/pages/Nonja/190010092116

If you are citing a group page, reference it as a webpage and substitute the name of the group for the author’s name:

When I was your age, Pluto was a planet. 2009. “Facebook.” [Group page]. Accessed October 12, 2011. http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2207893888

Reference a Tweet using the example for web page, adding in [Twitter post] after the title:

BarackObama. 2009. “Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7.” [Twitter post]. Accessed October 12, 2011. http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366

Got another tricky QUT Harvard question? Check out QUT cite|writeAsk-a-librarian, or drop us a line below.


  1. Irene Owens

    There is the best guide I see. Facebook and tweet referencing are so easy but people do not follow citing rules. Because I think manually citing is not easy at all there is 16 citation style and I am not confirm who style I need to use. Before I found ama generator, I have cited my research papers manually but it’s not an easy method. Meantime I have use ama citation generator this generator cite my research papers automatically.I have shared one, and I hope that this would add value to the readers.

    • Thanks for sharing Irene! Citing manually is often a bit more time consuming but worth it in the end because you know it should be accurate 😀